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What is Congenital Heart Defect – Expert Shares Input | health news


Recently on February 14, when the world celebrated Valentine’s Day, another special – and even more critical – heart-related day was observed – Congenital Heart Defect (CHD) Awareness Day. Congenital heart defects are structural abnormalities of the heart that are present at birth. “The incidence of CHD is about 8-10/1000 live births, but the incidence is much higher in aborted fetuses. There are different types of congenital heart defects, which can affect different parts of the heart and vary in severity,” said Dr. Ashutosh Marwah, Director – Pediatric Cardiology, Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, Okhla Road, New Delhi.

Some common types of congenital heart defects include atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), aortic stenosis, and pulmonary stenosis. Dr. Marwah explains the different types of birth defects:

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): An opening in the septum (wall) between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): An opening in the septum between the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart.

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): Failure of the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta, closes after birth.

Narrowing of the aorta: A narrowing of the aortic valve, which blocks blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.

Pulmonary stenosis: Pulmonary valve stenosis may require balloon dilatation depending on the severity.

Summaries of Fallot’s four plays: A combination of four heart defects including a ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve and artery), overriding aorta (the aorta is displaced toward the right ventricle), and right ventricular hypertrophy (thickening of the muscle in the right ventricle).

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Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA): A condition in which the aorta and pulmonary arteries are switched in position.

Aortic appendages: The aorta, the main artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body, is narrowed.

Ebstein’s Anomaly: A defect in which the tricuspid valve, located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, is positioned abnormally and does not function properly.

Pulmonary atresia: Absence or abnormal closing of the pulmonary valve, which blocks blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.

Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC): Abnormal connection of the pulmonary veins with the right atrium instead of the left atrium.

Tricuspid Atresia: Absence or underdevelopment of the tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium and right ventricle.

Dr Marwah adds that treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, catheter-based procedures or surgery.

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