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Endometriosis Awareness Month: How Can Endometriosis Affect Women’s Fertility Across Ages? Expert share signs health news


Endometriosis is a significant concern in the field of gynecology. During each menstrual cycle, a woman sheds the lining of her uterus, known as the endometrium, which causes menstrual bleeding. But occasionally, this menstrual blood—which contains live endometrial cells—enters the abdominal cavity through the blood vessels, lymphatics, or fallopian tubes, among other channels.

Dr Nagendra Sardeshpande, Gynecological Endoscopic Surgeon, Sir HN Reliance Hospital explains, “This is the start of a complex chain reaction: these cells can attach themselves to the outer part of the uterus, fallopian tubes, intestines and ovaries, where they proliferate and bleed internally.”

“As a result of this internal bleeding, the abdominal cavity becomes irritated and the affected organs begin to stick together, causing adhesions. These adhesions, in turn, can entrap and compress vital structures such as pelvic nerves, blood vessels and ureters, causing further complications”, Dr. Nagendra added.

Endometriosis: Symptoms

– Severe persistent pelvic pain that worsens during menstruation.

– hematochezia (blood in the stool), tendinitis (pain during bowel movements), and occasional bowel obstruction

– Infertility is caused by adhesions and inflammation blocking the fallopian tubes and ovaries, which can affect egg and sperm function.

– Symptoms of periodic urination, such as painful urination (dysuria) and blood in the urine (hematuria), when the bladder is affected by endometriosis.

– Constriction of the ureter, resulting in hydronephrosis, which causes dilatation of the ureter and, in rare cases, discomfort and renal failure.

– An alternative type of endometriosis called adenomyosis is caused by growths in the myometrium (uterine muscle) invading the endometrium (uterine lining). Menorrhagia, or heavy menstrual flow, and dysmenorrhea, or severe menstrual pain, are symptoms of this illness. Rectangular adenomyosis is another condition that causes endometriosis-like symptoms by showing uterus-like tissue (endometrium and muscle) in the pelvic area.

– Pelvic congestion syndrome, a condition characterized by dilated blood vessels around the uterus, is probably the only reason for the diagnosis in some cases of chronic pelvic pain.

Treatment for endometriosis

Dr. Nagendra highlighted, “The mainstay of treatment for endometriosis and its comorbidities is surgical intervention; fertility therapy and medication follow. The best method for treating endometriosis is now laparoscopic surgery.”

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